The Complete Set of Franja de Propaganda Electoral Content – Chile 1988

Pinochet’s Residual Legal Claim Over Chilean Collective Memory

Página en español.

A complete set of the 1988 Franja de Propaganda Electoral is unavailable through any institutional collection within Chile. The material is nearly impossible to find because at the end of the Pinochet dictatorship, a series of leyes de amarre or “gag laws” were hurriedly passed to protect the image and interests of Pinochet’s supporters after his exit from power. According to one of these dictatorial laws, no audio-visual material produced in Chile during the dictatorship can be made publicly available unless someone claims authorship and ownership rights over said material, and subsequently authorizes its public circulation. The authorization process was completed for the anti-Pinochet NO programming soon after the 1990 transition to civilian rule, but it was never completed for the pro-Pinochet  programming. To this day, those that supported the Pinochet regime during the 1988 plebiscite collectively refuse to acknowledge their role in producing the  Franjas, thereby blocking the public circulation of this essential historical material within Chile, even three decades after the first and only national broadcast of the complete series.

The impact of the partial circulation of Franja content is noteworthy. The 1988 Franja de Propaganda Electoral can only be understood when the NO and the SÍ Franjas are viewed together as experienced in 1988. When viewed in isolation, the NO Franjas are celebrated as happy icons of a peaceful transition and political reconciliation. On the other hand, viewing them together with the corresponding  Franjas renders a dramatically different story of that critical political moment – a violent struggle over the future of Chile while the country was still firmly in the grip of the military regime. Short of experiencing the complete set of Franjas in this way, Chilean collective memory of the 1988 plebiscite remains fractured.

I have first-hand knowledge about how a complete set of this material is nearly impossible to find because, for the better part of four years, I unsuccessfully searched for a set. In 2015, while conducting my final field research trip to Chile, I finally negotiated the duplication of the only known complete set of the 1988 Franja de Propaganda Electoral that was stored in the archives of the Chilean public television network, Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN). That last official archival set was not accessible to the public, where it remained in the original “U-Matic” ¾-inch tape used in 1988 and was therefore susceptible to the inevitable degradation common to that magnetic tape format. 

Pinochet’s residual legal claim over this content resurfaced in September of 2016 when I uploaded seven munites of  Franja content to my personal YouTube channel. At that time, I marked the video as “unlisted,” unavailable to the general public, as it was intended only for viewing during an academic talk. At some point during early 2017, two companies, “egeda” and “egeda Wildside” claimed the copyright of this unlisted content. Still, they did not block access to the material from my channel, choosing only to “monetize” the content in their favor. I have not found any information about these companies, much less the basis for their copyright claim. At some point during the summer of 2017, “Canal 13 SpA” also claimed the material, and YouTube permanently blocked the unlisted video from my channel.

The long-dead dictator’s censorship continued through 2018. Despite substantial interest in the material and the fact that Chilean researchers, as well as scholars from around the world, would benefit from the housing and preservation of this material at an academic institution, not one of the eleven U.S. universities I approached accepted my donation of the Franja de Propaganda Electoral collection. Apparently, they feared the legal consequences of violating the Pinochet regime’s residual legal claim over this material. After failing to find an academic institution willing to accept the only complete 1998 Franja de Propaganda Electoral collection, and with no way to get around various online copyright claims, I decided to disregard Pinochet’s residual claim over Chilean collective memory on my own. In 2019, I uploaded the entire Franja collection to my personal server.

Below is the only publicly available complete set of the 1988 Franja de Propganga Electoral. As of 2018, I know of no other complete collection of 1988 Franja content housed anywhere within or outside of Chile. 


Franja de Propganga Electoral, Colección Completa. Plebiscito de 1988, Chile. 


#1, Lunes, 5 de septiembre, 1988 – Monday, September 5, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#2, Martes, 6 de septiembre, 1988 – Tuesday, September 5, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#3, Miércoles, 7 de septiembre, 1988 – Wednesday, September 7, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#4, Jueves, 8 de septiembre, 1988 – Thursday, September 8, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#5, Viernes, 9 de septiembre, 1988 – Friday, September 9, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#6, Sábado, 10 de septiembre, 1988 – Saturday, September 10, 1988 // 11:30 am


#7, Domingo, 11 de septiembre, 1988 – Sunday, September 11, 1988 // 11:30 am


#8, Lunes, 12 de septiembre, 1988 – Monday, September 12, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#9, Martes, 13 de septiembre, 1988 – Tuesday, September 13, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#10, Miércoles, 14 de septiembre, 1988 – Wednesday, September 14, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#11, Jueves, 15 de septiembre, 1988 – Thursday, September 15, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#12, Viernes, 16 de septiembre, 1988 – Friday, September 16, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#13, Sábado, 17 de septiembre, 1988 – Saturday, September 17, 1988 // 11:30 am


#14, Domingo, 18 de septiembre, 1988 – Sunday, September 18, 1988 // 11:30 am


#15, Lunes, 19 de septiembre, 1988 – Monday, September 19, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#16, Martes, 20 de septiembre, 1988 – Tuesday, September 20, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#17, Miércoles, 21 de septiembre, 1988 – Wednesday, September 21, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#18, Jueves, 22 de septiembre, 1988 – Thursday, September 22, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#19, Viernes, 23 de septiembre, 1988 – Friday, September 23, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#20, Sábado, 24 de septiembre, 1988 – Saturday, September 24, 1988 // 11:30 am


#21, Domingo, 25 de septiembre, 1988 – Sunday, September 25, 1988 // 11:30 am


#22, Lunes, 26 de septiembre, 1988 – Monday, September 26, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#23, Martes, 27 de septiembre, 1988 – Tuesday, September 27, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#24, Miércoles, 28 de septiembre, 1988 – Wednesday, September 28, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#25, Jueves, 29 de septiembre, 1988 – Thursday, September 29, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#26, Viernes, 30 de septiembre, 1988 – Friday, September 30, 1988 // 10:45 pm


#27, Sábado, 01 de octubre, 1988 – Saturday, October 1, 1988 // 11:30 am


  • Domingo // 2 Oct // Sunday
  • Lunes // 3 Oct // Monday
  • Martes // 4 Oct // Tuesday
  • Miércoles // 5 Oct // Wednesday: El Plebiscito // Voting day.

Originally published online, 05/20/2019. 

Transferred and revised, 11/21/2021.

Translated and revised, 07/11/2022.

%d bloggers like this: