Raza Demographics in the U.S.

Contents



Last updated 08/23/2022.

This is a work in progress. I will update and add new information as often as possible. Please send source material and other recommendations to <elsimon@qvole.org>. To cite any part of this project:

Simón Salazar, H. L. (2022). Raza Demographics in the U.S. Harry L. Simón Salazar, Ph.D. https://harrysimonsalazar.net/raza-demographics-in-the-u-s/.


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“La Raza”: Definition & Use

Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. When I use “Hispanic and Latino,” I primarily draw statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau (USCB). In some instances, I use USCB data in combination with other institutional sources to provide a more complete picture of a given topic. References to “Hispanic or Latino” populations are subject to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 1997 definition of “Hispanic or Latino.”[1]According to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), a “Hispanic or Latino” is a “person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish … Continue reading

On the other hand, when I use “la raza” or simply “raza,” I am referring to all those people who self-identified as “Hispanic or Latino” with the 2020 Census while including the following groups of people:

  • An estimated 4 million people from Latin America who are undocumented while living in the U.S., and were not included in the 2020 census.[2]There is an ongoing debate about the actual number of undocumented people living in the U.S. The PRC uses estimates from 2017 to suggest that the number is 10.5 million (Lopez et al., 2021), while … Continue reading
  • 3.3 million people in Puerto Rico who are typically excluded from the totals for the U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population[3]The USCB does, in fact, include Puerto Rico in its decennial census, but only as a “territory.” Puerto Ricans who live in Puerto Rico are therefore excluded from U.S. national statistics.
  • An estimated 3,097,794 people who make up the 4.99% of all “Hispanic or Latino” people formally acknowledged by the USCB as having been excluded from the 2020 Census.[4]This substantial undercount is the most severe of the 2020 census. The 4.99% undercount represents the exclusion of approximately 3,097,794 people, that is at least 1 of every 20 U.S. … Continue reading
  • 2.3 million people who self-identified as “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino” within the 2020 Census.[5]There are significant cultural, historical, geographic, and racial connections between Indigenous people of North America and “Hispanic or Latino” people within the United States. Yet, … Continue reading
  • An estimated 1,171,915 people of Jamaican heritage who are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of Jamaica is English, not Spanish.[6]When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Jamaican” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Black or African American” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021d).
  • An estimated 1,084,455 people of Haitian heritage who are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of Haiti is French, not Spanish.[7]When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Haitian” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Black or African American.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021d).
  • An estimated 684,000 people of Brazilian heritage who are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of Brazil is Portuguese, not Spanish.[8]When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Brazilian” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Some Other Race.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021d; Waters & … Continue reading
  • An estimated 420,154 people from the “Antilles” who are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of their country is not Spanish.[9]When a person as from one of these countries on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Black or African American.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 & 2021d). The … Continue reading
  • An estimated 388,293 people from Belize and of “West Indian” heritage who are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of their country is not Spanish.[10]When a person as from one of these countries on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Some Other Race.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 & 2021d). The “West Indies” … Continue reading
  • An estimated 231,649 people of Guyanese heritage who are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of Guyana is English, not Spanish.[11]When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Guyanese” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Some Other Race.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 & 2021d).
  • Finally, I exclude an estimated 845,000 people who identify themselves as “Spanish.”[12]The U.S. Census includes people who identify themselves as “Spanish” alone as belonging in the category of “Hispanic or Latino.” People from Spain are European – they … Continue reading

More broadly, I conceptualize raza as a multi-racial, multi-ethnic, multi-national, gender-neutral term to identify all people within the United States who are of Latin American and/or Indigenous heritage. Most importantly, la raza is a historically situated, socio-political, and cultural identity that is comprehensible to broad, working-class sectors within the United States and throughout Latin America. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, please read my brief etymological assessment of why I prefer “raza” rather than “Hispanic” or “Latinx.” Access it by following the link below.

(Forthcoming) “In Defense Of ‘La Raza:’ The People’s Collective Identity.”


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A Statistical Overview of U.S. Raza

Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

U.S. Population
2020.[13]– In 2010. 50.5 million “Hispanic or Latino” people. 16.4% of the total U.S. population. – 2000. 35.3 million… 12.5% of the total U.S. population. – 1990. 22 … Continue reading62,080,044* – “Hispanic or Latino” people, 2020.[14]The original 2020 Census count, not including the 4.99% undercount.


65,177,838 – “Hispanic or Latino” people.[15]Adjusted for the net 4.99% undercount. The original 2020 Census count was 62.1 million, 18.7% of the total U.S. population.


78,693,448 – the total raza population.[16]For the purposes of this research, “la raza” is used as a collective identification for all people who listed in the first section of this document. For more information about “la … Continue reading 

18.7%* – “Hispanic or Latino” as a % of the total U.S. population.[17]The original 2020 Census count, not including the 4.99% undercount.


19.6% – “Hispanic or Latino” as a % of the total U.S. population.


23.7% – “raza” as a % of the total U.S. population.

  (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020 & 2021c; Waters & Batalova, 2022).

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National Origin
México.37,185,000 – PRC 2019.[18]Pew Research Center – Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022. See Méxican Heritage section for details and additional sources.


40,970,143 – Raza count.[19]39,065,000 when 47% of the four million undocumented/uncounted are factored in – that is an additional 1,880,000 Mexican people. 40,970,143 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people) … Continue reading

~61.5% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~52.1% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Puerto Rico.5,845,000 – PRC 2019.[20]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Puerto Rican Heritage section for details and additional sources.


9,431,360 – Raza count.[21]Another 3,285,874 people live in Puerto Rico and are typically excluded from the totals for the U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population. This makes the total Puerto Rican population … Continue reading

~9.7% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~12.0% of the U.S. “raza” population.

El Salvador.2,345,000 – PRC 2019.[22]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Salvadoran Heritage section for details and additional sources.


2,745,814 – Raza count.[23]2,625,000 when 7% of the four million undocumented/uncounted are factored in – that is an additional 280,000 Salvadoran people. 2,745,814 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) … Continue reading

~3.9% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~3.5% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Cuba.2,380,000 – PRC 2019.[24]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Cuban Heritage section for details and additional sources.


2,500,814 – Raza count.[25]2,500,814 when adjusted for the 4.99% – 3,097,794 people – undercount in 2020. 3.9% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 120,814 Cuban people. See Cuban Heritage section for details … Continue reading

~3.9% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~3.2% of the U.S. “raza” population.

Indigenous (U.S.).2,251,699 – USCB.[26]People who self-identified racially as “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino” in the 2020 census. See Indigenous Heritage section for details and additional … Continue reading


2,271,560 – Raza count.[27]2,271,560 when adjusted for the 0.9% (19,861) net undercount. See Indigenous Heritage section for details and additional sources.

~0.7% of the total U.S. population.


~2.9% of the U.S. “raza” population.

República Dominicana.2,085,000 – PRC 2019.[28]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Dominican Heritage section for details and additional sources.


2,190,325 – Raza count.[29]2,190,325 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 3.4% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 105,325 Dominican people. See Dominican Heritage section for details … Continue reading

~3.4% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~2.8% of the U.S. “raza” population.

Guatemala.1,655,000 – PRC 2019.[30]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Guatemalan Heritage section for details and additional sources.


2,018,640 – Raza count.[31]1,945,000 when 7% of the four million undocumented/uncounted are factored in – that is an additional 280,000 Guatemalan people. 2,028,640 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) … Continue reading

~2.7% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~2.6% of the U.S. “raza” population.

Colombia.1,240,000 – PRC 2019.[32]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Colombian Heritage section for details and additional sources.


1,301,956 – Raza count.[33]1,301,956 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 2.0% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 61,956 Colombian people. See Colombian Heritage section for details and … Continue reading

~2.0% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~1.7% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Honduras.1,075,000 – PRC 2019.[34]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Honduran Heritage section for details and additional sources.


1,290,760 – Raza count.[35]1,235,000 when 4% of the four million undocumented/uncounted are factored in – that is an additional 160,000 Honduran people. 1,290,760 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) … Continue reading

~1.8% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~1.6% of the U.S. “raza” population.

Jamaica.1,171,915 – USCB 2019.[36]U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Explore Census Data: B04006 PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY. American Community Survey. See Jamaican Heritage section for details and additional sources.


1,207,544 – Raza count.[37]1,207,544 when adjusted for the 3.3% (1,272,460 people total) undercount of people identified as “Black or African American alone or in combination” in 2020. 2.8% of 1,272,460 represents an … Continue reading

~2.8% of the U.S. “Black or African American alone” population.


~1.5% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Haiti.1,084,455 – USCB 2019.[38]U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Explore Census Data: B04006 PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY. American Community Survey. See Haitian Heritage section for details and additional sources.


1,118,811 – Raza count.[39]1,118,811 when adjusted for the 3.3% (1,272,460 people total) undercount of people identified as “Black or African American alone or in combination” in 2020. 2.7% of 1,272,460 represents an … Continue reading

~2.7% of the U.S. “Black or African American alone” population.


~1.4% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Ecuador.710,000 – PRC 2019.[40]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


747,174 – Raza count.[41]747,174 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 1.2% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 37,174 Ecuadoran people.

~1.2% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~1.0% of the U.S. “raza” population.

Brazil.684,000 – MPI 2022.[42]Migration Policy Institute (Waters & Batalova, 2022). People of Brazilian heritage are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of Brazil … Continue reading


736,953 – Raza count.[43]The USCB reported a 4.34% undercount for the census category of “Some Other Race alone,” which was originally set at 1,689,833 people. When adjusted for the 4.34% of 1,689,833 people … Continue reading

~0.2% of the total U.S. population.


~0.9% of the U.S. “raza” population.

Peru.650,000 – PRC 2019.[44]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


684,076 – Raza count.[45]684,076 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 1.1% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 34,076 Peruvian people

~1.1% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.9% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Venezuela.540,000 – PRC 2019.[46]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


567,880 – Raza count.[47]567,880 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.9% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 27,880 Venezuelan people

~0.9% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.7% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Nicaragua.435,000 – PRC 2019.[48]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


456,685 – Raza count.[49]456,685 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.7% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 21,685 Nicaraguan people

~0.7% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.6% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Argentina.310,000 – PRC 2019.[50]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


325,489 – Raza count.[51]325,489 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.5% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 15,489 Argentinian people

~0.5% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.4% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Guyana.231,649 – USCB 2019.[52]U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Explore Census Data: B04006 PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY. American Community Survey. People of Guyanese heritage are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or … Continue reading


256,361 – Raza count.[53]The USCB reported a 4.34% undercount for the census category of “Some Other Race alone,” which was originally set at 1,689,833 people. When adjusted for the 4.34% of 1,689,833 people … Continue reading

~0.07% of the total U.S. population.


~0.3% of the U.S. “raza” population.

Panama.195,000 – PRC 2019.[54]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


204,293 – Raza count.[55]204,293 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.3% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 9,293 Panamanian people.

~0.3% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.3% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Costa Rica.170,000 – PRC 2019.[56]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


179,293 – Raza count.[57]179,293 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.3% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 9,293 Costa Rican people

~0.3% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.2% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Chile.160,000 – PRC 2019.[58]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


169,293 – Raza count.[59]169,293 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.3% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 9,293 Chilean people

~0.3% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.2% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Bolivia.135,000 – PRC 2019.[60]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


141,196 – Raza count.[61]141,196 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.2% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 6,196 Bolivian people

~0.2% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.2% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Uruguay.75,000 – PRC 2019.[62]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


78,098 – Raza count.[63]78,098 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.1% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 3,098 Uruguayan people

~0.1% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.1% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

Paraguay.30,000 – PRC 2019.[64]Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).


31,549 – Raza count.[65]31,549 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.05% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 1,549 Paraguayan people

~0.05% of U.S. “Hispanics or Latinos.”


~0.04% of the U.S. “raza” population. 

 (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2021; Matera et al., 2020; U.S. Census Bureau, 2019, 2020, 2021c, & 2021d; Waters & Batalova, 2022).

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Age, Citizenship, & Individual Identity
2019/2020.“Hispanic or Latino” Median Age: 29.5 (National: 38.8)“Hispanic or Latino” Citizenship:

  • U.S.-Born: 40.7 million, 66.7% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
  • Naturalized: 7.9 million, 13.0% of the total…
  • Non-Citizens: 11.9 million, 19.5% of the total...
Female: 49.5% // Male: 50.5%[66]180,000 “Hispanic or Latino” people identify as nonbinary, 0.3% of the total U.S. population.LGBTQ: ~4% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population, 2.3 million.
“Hispanic or Latino” Self-Identification by Race:

  • “Some Other Race”: 42.2%.
  • “Two or More Races”: 32.7%.
  • “White Alone”: 20.3%.
  • “American Indian & Alaskan Native Alone”: 2.4%.
  • “Black or African American Alone”: 1.9%.
  • “Asian Alone”: 0.4%.
  • “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Alone”: 0.1%.
 (Hamilton et al., 2021; UCLA Williams Institute, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2020; Wilson et al., 2021).

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Language
2019.72% of all “Hispanic or Latino” people age 5 and older speak English proficiently.1980 – 59% of all “Hispanic or Latino” people age 5 and older speak English proficiently.
 91% of U.S.-born “Hispanic or Latino” people age 5 and older speak English proficiently.1980 – 72% of U.S.-born “Hispanic or Latino” people age 5 and older speak English proficiently.
 37% of non-U.S.-born “Hispanic or Latino” people age 5 and older speak English proficiently.1980 – 31% of non-U.S.-born “Hispanic or Latino” people age 5 and older speak English proficiently.
 70% of all “Hispanic or Latino” people age 5 and older speak Spanish at home.2000 – 78% of all “Hispanic or Latino” people age 5 and older speak Spanish at home.
  (Funk & Lopez, 2022).

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Education
2019-2021.25+ Years & Over, “Hispanic or Latino,” High School Diploma: 28.5% (National: 25.3%) … M.A. Degree: 4.8% (10.7%)
 … A.A. Degree: 9.1% (10.5%)… Professional: 0.7% (1.5%)
 … B.A. Degree: 14.5% (23.5%) … Ph.D. Degree: 0.6% (2.1%)
“Latinos” in the military: 200,692 (16.3% of total)2010 – “Latinos” in the military: 133,960 (12.6% of total)
  (Hamilton et al., 2021; US Census Bureau, 2022a).

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Economics
2019/2020.“Hispanic or Latino,” 16+ Years & Over, Civilian Labor Force: 66.4% (National: 62.9%).“Hispanic or Latino” Median Household Income: $55,321 (National: $67,521).
“Hispanic Men” Median Annual Earnings: $45,074 (National: $61,417).“Hispanic Women” Median Annual Earnings: $38,718 (National: $50,982).
“Hispanic or Latino” Poverty Rate: 17.0%, 10.4 million (National: 11.4%, 37.2 million).[67]The OMB set the poverty threshold for 2020 at an individual yearly income of $13,171. For a family of two, the threshold is $16,733. For a family of three, the threshold is $20,591. Wealth Inequality: “Hispanic or Latino” households hold 2.8% of overall U.S. wealth. (White households hold 86.8%).
“Hispanic or Latino” GDP by Industry Sector, % of Total GDP:

  • Education/Healthcare/Social Assistance:  16.4%.
  • Professional/Business Services: 12.0%.
  • Finance/Insurance/Real Estate: 9.3%.
  • Construction: 8.7%.
  • Government Services: 8.7%.
  • Leisure/Hospitality: 7.4%.
  • Wholesale Trade: 6.1%.
  • Transportation/Warehousing/Utilities: 5.9%.
  • Retail Trade: 5.5%
  • Durables Manufacturing: 4.8%
  • Agricultural/Natural Resources: 1.7%
“Hispanic or Latino” Home Ownership: 48% (White home ownership: 86.8%).Total GDP “Hispanics or Latinos” in the United States: $2.75 trillion, above France with the seventh largest GDP in the world.
“Purchasing Power:” $1.9 trillion USD, 11.1% of total U.S. buying power. Up from $213 billion in 1990. (Aladangady & Forde, 2021; Hamilton et al., 2021; Median Annual Earnings…, 2020; Melancon, 2022; Shrider et al., 2021; U.S. Census Bureau, 2021a & 2021b).

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State-Level Information 
2021.States with the largest “Hispanic or Latino” populations:[68]Together, these make up 76% of the total “Hispanic or Latino” population.

  • California: 15,754,605.
  • Texas: 11,857,401.
  • Florida: 5,830,908.
  •  California: 15,754,605.
  • Texas: 11,857,401.
  • Florida: 5,830,908.
  • California: 15,754,605.
  • Texas: 11,857,401.
  • Florida: 5,830,908.
 States with the fastest-growing “Hispanic or Latino” population (2015-2019):

  • New Hampshire: 22.2% growth.
  • Vermont: 19.1%.
  • North Dakota: 17.0%
  • Tennessee: 16.7%
  • Kentucky: 15.0%.
  • Idaho: 14.8%.
  • Pennsylvania: 14.7%.
  • Maine: 14.5%
  • Florida: 14.1%
  • Ohio: 13.7
States with the largest Hispanic markets:

  • California – $506 billion.
  • Texas – $361 billion.
  • Florida – $208 billion.
  • New York – $139 billion.
  • New Jersey – $70 billion.
  • Illinois – $68 billion.
  • Arizona – $63 billion.
  • Colorado – $40 billion.
  • New Mexico – $32 billion.
  • Washington – $31 billion.
  (Hamilton et al., 2021; US Census Bureau, 2022b).

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Mexican Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of Mexican Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of Mexican Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– 36,537,028.– 58.9% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    50.7%

– Male:    49.3% 

Economics  
2018.– 15% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– 17% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– 35.3 million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:

– California: 15,754,605.

– Texas: 11,857,401.

– Florida: 5,830,908.

– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– 35.3 million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Puerto Rican Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of Puerto Rican Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of Puerto Rican Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    50.7%

– Male:    49.3% 

Economics  
2018.– 15% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– 17% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– 35.3 million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:

– California: 15,754,605.

– Texas: 11,857,401.

– Florida: 5,830,908.

– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– 35.3 million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Salvadoran Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Cuban Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Indigenous Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Dominican Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Guatemalan Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Colombian Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Jamaican Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). (Lorenzi, 2022)
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Haitian Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Honduran Heritage, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Other Groups, Corresponding Data

What follows is information pieced together and updated on an ongoing basis. There are sections that provide data, and other sections that serve as place-holders for data I hope to include as soon as possible. Within this post, I use “Hispanic and Latino” or “Raza” to collectively identify two groups of people. For more details about the differences between these collective identities and how I use them, refer to the section titled “La Raza”: Definition & Use.

Narrative description of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.

A Statistical Overview of People of xxx Heritage in the U.S.
U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). 
1970.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1980.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
1990. – xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2010.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
2020.– xx.– xx% of the total U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population.
Age, Sex

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2020).

– Median Age: xx.x– Female:   xx%

– Male:   xx

Education

(U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

– Median Age: xx– Female:    xx%

– Male:    xx% 

Economics  
2018.– xx% of total college graduates.– (Fry et al., 2021).
2019.– xx% of the total workforce.– “Based on employed adults ages 25 and older (Fry et al., 2021).”
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.
State-Level Data  
2021.States with the largest Mexican populations:– (US Census Bureau, 2022b).
2000.– xx million.– x% of the total U.S. population.

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Definitions of Race & Ethnicity, 2020 Census[69]From “Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census” “Ethnicity: Ethnicity is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as either ‘Hispanic or Latino’ … Continue reading


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References:

Aladangady, A. (2021, October 22). Wealth Inequality and the Racial Wealth Gap. Board Of Governors Of The Federal Reserve System. https://www.federalreserve.gov/econres/notes/feds-notes/wealth-inequality-and-the-racial-wealth-gap-20211022.htm

Fry, R., Kennedy, B., & Funk, C. (2021, April 1). STEM Jobs See Uneven Progress in Increasing Gender, Racial and Ethnic Diversity. Pew Research Center Science & Society. https://www.pewresearch.org/science/2021/04/01/stem-jobs-see-uneven-progress-in-increasing-gender-racial-and-ethnic-diversity/

Funk, C., & Lopez, M. H. (2022, June 16). A brief statistical portrait of U.S. Hispanics. Pew Research Center Science & Society. https://www.pewresearch.org/science/2022/06/14/a-brief-statistical-portrait-of-u-s-hispanics/

Hamilton, D., Hayes-Bautista, D., Fienup, M., & Hsu, P. (2021). 2021 LDC U.S. Latino GDP Report: Quantifying the New American Economy. Latino Donor Collaborative. https://www.latinodonorcollaborative.org/original-research/2021-ldc-u-s-latino-gdp-report

Kamarck, E., & Stenglein, C. (2020, October 27). How many undocumented immigrants are in the United States and who are they? Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/policy2020/votervital/how-many-undocumented-immigrants-are-in-the-united-states-and-who-are-they/

Krogstad, J. M., & Noe-Bustamante, L. (2021, September 9). Key facts about U.S. Latinos for National Hispanic Heritage Month. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/09/09/key-facts-about-u-s-latinos-for-national-hispanic-heritage-month/

Lopez, M. H., Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. (2021, April 13). Key facts about the changing U.S. unauthorized immigrant population. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/04/13/key-facts-about-the-changing-u-s-unauthorized-immigrant-population/

Lorenzi, J, & Batalova, J. (2022, July 13). Caribbean Immigrants in the United States. Migrationpolicy.Org. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/caribbean-immigrants-united-states

Matera, M., Sandin, L., & Alvarez, M. (2020). An Assessment of the State of the Guyanese Diaspora. In The Guyanese Diaspora (pp. 3–16). Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep26538.4

Median annual earnings by sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity. (2020). U.S. Department of Labor. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/wb/data/earnings/median-annual-sex-race-hispanic-ethnicity

Melancon, M. J. (2022, February 14). Consumer buying power is more diverse than ever. UGA Today. https://news.uga.edu/selig-multicultural-economy-report-2021/

Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. (2019, June 12). Mexicans decline to less than half the U.S. unauthorized immigrant population for the first time. Pew Research Center. https://pewrsr.ch/31s3twf

Profile of the Unauthorized Population – US. (2019). Migration Policy Institute. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/data/unauthorized-immigrant-population/state/US

Sanchez, G. R. (2022, March 26). What are the consequences of the Latino undercount in the 2020 U.S. Census? Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2022/03/24/what-are-the-consequences-of-the-latino-undercount-in-the-2020-u-s-census/

Shrider, E., Kollar, M., Chen, F., & Semega, J. (2021, September). Income and Poverty in the United States: 2020 (No. P60-273). U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2021/demo/p60-273.html

UCLA Williams Institute. (2022, July 21). 1.2 million LGBTQ adults in the US identify as nonbinary. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/press/lgbtq-nonbinary-press-release/

U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Explore Census Data: B04006 PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY. American Community Survey. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=b04006&t=Ancestry&d=ACS%201-Year%20Estimates%20Detailed%20Tables&tid=ACSDT1Y2019.B04006&hidePreview=false

U.S. Census Bureau. (2020). Explore Census Data. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/

US Census Bureau. (2021a). The Hispanic Population in the United States: 2019. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2019/demo/hispanic-origin/2019-cps.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2021b). Inequalities Persist Despite Decline in Poverty For All Major Race and Hispanic Origin Groups. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2020/09/poverty-rates-for-blacks-and-hispanics-reached-historic-lows-in-2019.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2021c). Puerto Rico Population Declined 11.8% From 2010 to 2020. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/state-by-state/puerto-rico-population-change-between-census-decade.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2021d). 2020 Census National Redistricting Data Summary File (SFNRD/20-02). https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial/2020/technical-documentation/complete-tech-docs/summary-file/2020Census_PL94_171Redistricting_NationalTechDoc.pdf

US Census Bureau. (2022a, February 24). Educational Attainment in the United States: 2021. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2021/demo/educational-attainment/cps-detailed-tables.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2022b, July 18). Nation Continues to Age as It Becomes More Diverse. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2022/population-estimates-characteristics.html

U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). (1997). Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity (No. 58782). United States Government Publishing Office (GPO). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1997-10-30/pdf/97-28653.pdf

Waters, J., & Batalova, J. (2022, August 4). Brazilian Immigrants in the United States. Migration Policy Institute. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/brazilian-immigrants-united-states

Wilson, B. D. M., Mallory, C., Bouton, L., & S.K., C. (2021, December 10). Latinx LGBT Adults in the US. UCLA Williams Institute. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/latinx-lgbt-adults-in-the-us/


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High-Resolution Graphic/Pie Chart:

“Raza Demographics in the U.S.

 

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Notes

Notes
1According to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), a “Hispanic or Latino” is a “person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term, ‘Spanish origin,’ can be used in addition to ‘Hispanic or Latino.’… The terms ‘Hispanic,’ ‘Latino,’ and ‘Spanish’ are used interchangeably. Some respondents identify with all three terms, while others may identify with only one of these three specific terms. People who identify with the terms ‘Hispanic,’ ‘Latino,’ or ‘Spanish’ are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish categories listed on the questionnaire (‘Mexican,’ ‘Puerto Rican,’ or ‘Cuban’) as well as those who indicate that they are ‘another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin.’ People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are ‘another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin’ are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, or another Spanish culture or origin. Up to six write-in responses to the ‘another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin’ category are coded. Knowing that some respondents may self-identify by reporting multiple Hispanic ethnicities, such as ‘Cuban’ AND ‘Salvadoran,’ 2020 Census entries with multiple detailed Hispanic responses will be collected for research purposes. However, following the OMB standards, only a single Hispanic response will be tabulated, as was done for the 2010 Census. Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States” (OMB, 1997).
2There is an ongoing debate about the actual number of undocumented people living in the U.S. The PRC uses estimates from 2017 to suggest that the number is 10.5 million (Lopez et al., 2021), while other sources suggest the number is 14 million or more (Kamarck & Stenglein, 2020). What is well-established among researchers and the U.S. political class is that the undocumented population in the U.S. is subject to a substantial undercount in every decennial census. I decided to use four million people as a temporary, low-end, numerical representation of the number of undocumented people from Latin America who were not counted in the 2020 census. My current research includes an updated estimation of the size of this population, and I will confirm or revise this number as soon as possible. For information about undocumented people in the U.S., see Passel and Cohn (2019) and Profile of the Unauthorized Population (2019).
3The USCB does, in fact, include Puerto Rico in its decennial census, but only as a “territory.” Puerto Ricans who live in Puerto Rico are therefore excluded from U.S. national statistics.
4This substantial undercount is the most severe of the 2020 census. The 4.99% undercount represents the exclusion of approximately 3,097,794 people, that is at least 1 of every 20 U.S. “Hispanics” who will not be included in any census-based calculations for federal funds or political representation. A thorough assessment of the consequences of this undercount has yet to be reported, but Sanchez (2022) provides a preliminary analysis. In the 2010 census, there was a 1.54% undercount.
5There are significant cultural, historical, geographic, and racial connections between Indigenous people of North America and “Hispanic or Latino” people within the United States. Yet, the U.S. federal government provides no institutional affordances nor political recognition of any of these links. Instead, the institutional process of racial formation is organized around European colonial legacies and underscores the balkanization of raza throughout the U.S. To be sure, the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” presumes connections between all U.S. raza and Spain, while also presuming no cultural, ethnic, or racial connections between U.S. raza and people who identify as “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” The first lines of the 1997 OMB nomenclatures are definitive in this regard; “The term, ‘Spanish origin,’ can be used in addition to ‘Hispanic or Latino.’… The terms ‘Hispanic,’ ‘Latino,’ and ‘Spanish’ are used interchangeably” (1997).
6When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Jamaican” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Black or African American” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021d).
7When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Haitian” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Black or African American.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021d).
8When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Brazilian” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Some Other Race.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021d; Waters & Batalova, 2022).
9When a person as from one of these countries on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Black or African American.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 & 2021d). The “Antilles” include the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgen Islands.
10When a person as from one of these countries on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Some Other Race.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 & 2021d). The “West Indies” include Aruba, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands,  Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Turks and Caicos.
11When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Guyanese” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Some Other Race.” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 & 2021d).
12The U.S. Census includes people who identify themselves as “Spanish” alone as belonging in the category of “Hispanic or Latino.” People from Spain are European – they are not from Latin America and/or of Indigenous heritage. Raza in the U.S. often identify themselves in the census as “Some Other Race” or “Two or More Races.” These individuals remain part of this count.
13 In 2010. 50.5 million “Hispanic or Latino” people. 16.4% of the total U.S. population.

2000. 35.3 million… 12.5% of the total U.S. population.

1990. 22 million… 8.8% of the total U.S. population.

1980. 14.6 million… 6.4% of the total U.S. population.

1970. 9.6 million… 4.7% of the total U.S. population.

14, 17The original 2020 Census count, not including the 4.99% undercount.
15Adjusted for the net 4.99% undercount. The original 2020 Census count was 62.1 million, 18.7% of the total U.S. population.
16For the purposes of this research, “la raza” is used as a collective identification for all people who listed in the first section of this document. For more information about “la raza” used as a collective identity, see “‘In Defense Of “La Raza:” A People’s Collective Identity.”
18Pew Research Center – Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022. See Méxican Heritage section for details and additional sources.
1939,065,000 when 47% of the four million undocumented/uncounted are factored in – that is an additional 1,880,000 Mexican people. 40,970,143 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people) undercount in 2020. 61.5% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 1,905,143 Mexican people. See Méxican Heritage section for details and additional sources.
20Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Puerto Rican Heritage section for details and additional sources.
21Another 3,285,874 people live in Puerto Rico and are typically excluded from the totals for the U.S. “Hispanic or Latino” population. This makes the total Puerto Rican population 9,130,874. See U.S. Census Bureau (2021c) for more details. 9,431,360 when adjusted to reflect the 4.99% undercount – that is an additional 300,486 Puerto Rican people. See Puerto Rican Heritage section for details and additional sources.
22Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Salvadoran Heritage section for details and additional sources.
232,625,000 when 7% of the four million undocumented/uncounted are factored in – that is an additional 280,000 Salvadoran people. 2,745,814 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 3.9% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 120,814 Salvadoran people. See Salvadoran Heritage section for details and additional sources.
24Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Cuban Heritage section for details and additional sources.
252,500,814 when adjusted for the 4.99% – 3,097,794 people – undercount in 2020. 3.9% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 120,814 Cuban people. See Cuban Heritage section for details and additional sources.
26People who self-identified racially as “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino” in the 2020 census. See Indigenous Heritage section for details and additional sources.
272,271,560 when adjusted for the 0.9% (19,861) net undercount. See Indigenous Heritage section for details and additional sources.
28Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Dominican Heritage section for details and additional sources.
292,190,325 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 3.4% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 105,325 Dominican people. See Dominican Heritage section for details and additional sources.
30Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Guatemalan Heritage section for details and additional sources.
311,945,000 when 7% of the four million undocumented/uncounted are factored in – that is an additional 280,000 Guatemalan people. 2,028,640 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 2.7% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 83,640 Guatemalan people. See Guatemalan Heritage section for details and additional sources.
32Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Colombian Heritage section for details and additional sources.
331,301,956 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 2.0% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 61,956 Colombian people. See Colombian Heritage section for details and additional sources.
34Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022). See Honduran Heritage section for details and additional sources.
351,235,000 when 4% of the four million undocumented/uncounted are factored in – that is an additional 160,000 Honduran people. 1,290,760 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 1.8% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 55,760 Honduran people. See Honduran Heritage section for details and additional sources.
36U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Explore Census Data: B04006 PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY. American Community Survey. See Jamaican Heritage section for details and additional sources.
371,207,544 when adjusted for the 3.3% (1,272,460 people total) undercount of people identified as “Black or African American alone or in combination” in 2020. 2.8% of 1,272,460 represents an additional 35,629 Jamaican people. See Jamaican Heritage section for details and additional sources.
38U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Explore Census Data: B04006 PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY. American Community Survey. See Haitian Heritage section for details and additional sources.
391,118,811 when adjusted for the 3.3% (1,272,460 people total) undercount of people identified as “Black or African American alone or in combination” in 2020. 2.7% of 1,272,460 represents an additional 34,356 Haitian people. See Haitian Heritage section for details and additional sources.
40, 44, 46, 48, 50, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64Pew Research Center (Krogstad & Noe-Bustamante, 2022).
41747,174 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 1.2% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 37,174 Ecuadoran people.
42Migration Policy Institute (Waters & Batalova, 2022). People of Brazilian heritage are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of Brazil is Portuguese, not Spanish. When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Brazilian” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Some Other Race” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021d; Waters & Batalova, 2022).
43The USCB reported a 4.34% undercount for the census category of “Some Other Race alone,” which was originally set at 1,689,833 people. When adjusted for the 4.34% of 1,689,833 people total) undercount in 2020, the total 1,765,116. The 2019 ACS issued by the USCB sets the number of people who claim Brazilian ancestry at 499,272 (USCB 2019), or 3.0% of the total original category of “Some other Race.” Therefore, adjusted for the undercount, 3.0% of 1,765,116, represents an additional 52,953 Brazilian people.
45684,076 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 1.1% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 34,076 Peruvian people
47567,880 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.9% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 27,880 Venezuelan people
49456,685 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.7% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 21,685 Nicaraguan people
51325,489 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.5% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 15,489 Argentinian people
52U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Explore Census Data: B04006 PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY. American Community Survey. People of Guyanese heritage are excluded from the OMB definition of “Hispanic or Latino” because the primary language of Guyana is English, not Spanish. When a person lists their race or ethnicity as “Guyanese” on the U.S. Census, they are typically counted as “Some Other Race” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021d; Matera et al., 2020.
53The USCB reported a 4.34% undercount for the census category of “Some Other Race alone,” which was originally set at 1,689,833 people. When adjusted for the 4.34% of 1,689,833 people total) undercount in 2020, the total 1,765,116. The 2019 ACS issued by the USCB sets the number of people who claim Guyanese ancestry at 231,649 (USCB 2019), or 1.4% of the total original category of “Some Other Race.” Therefore, adjusted for the undercount, 1.4% of 1,765,116, represents an additional 24,712 Guyanese people.
55204,293 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.3% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 9,293 Panamanian people.
57179,293 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.3% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 9,293 Costa Rican people
59169,293 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.3% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 9,293 Chilean people
61141,196 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.2% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 6,196 Bolivian people
6378,098 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.1% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 3,098 Uruguayan people
6531,549 when adjusted for the 4.99% (3,097,794 people total) undercount in 2020. 0.05% of 3,097,794 represents an additional 1,549 Paraguayan people
66180,000 “Hispanic or Latino” people identify as nonbinary, 0.3% of the total U.S. population.
67The OMB set the poverty threshold for 2020 at an individual yearly income of $13,171. For a family of two, the threshold is $16,733. For a family of three, the threshold is $20,591.
68Together, these make up 76% of the total “Hispanic or Latino” population.
69From “Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census”
“Ethnicity: Ethnicity is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as either ‘Hispanic or Latino’ or ‘Not Hispanic or Latino.’ The Office of Management and Budget defines ‘Hispanic or Latino’ as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. People who identify as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race”
“Race alone or in combination: The maximum number of people reporting a particular race is reflected in the race alone or in combination concept. This represents the number of times responses were part of one of the six major race categories, either alone or in combination with the other five race categories. For example, a respondent who identified as “Asian” and “White” was counted in the Asian race alone or in combination category as well as in the White race alone or in combination category. Therefore, the sum of all race alone or in combination categories equals the number of races reported (i.e., responses), which exceeds the total population”
(US Census Bureau 2021, October 14).
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