Race & Ethnicity in the U.S., 2020 Census (including the over/undercounts!)

 


– “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for 1.64% Overcount[1]This overcount was specific to the category of “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” the 2020 overcount was twice what it was in the 2010 census (.83%). Over/undercounts are only noted … Continue reading)
– 191.7  of 332 million people in the U.S.– 188.6  of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 57.8% of the total population.56.8% of the total population.

– “Hispanic or Latino”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for 4.99% Undercount[2]This is a scandalous undercount; the most severe of the 2020 census. The consequences have yet to be analyzed. In the 2010 census, there was a 1.54% undercount. Over/undercounts are only noted when … Continue reading)
– 62.1  of 332 million people in the U.S.– 65.2  of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 18.7% of the total population.– 19.6% of the total population.

– “Black or African American alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for Overcount[3]The Census Bureau reported a 3.30% undercount for the general category of “Black or African American,” from 12.4% to 12.6%. Their correction did not extend to people who identified … Continue reading
– 39.9  of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 12.1% of the total population.

– “Asian alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for Overcount[4]The Census Bureau reported a 2.62% overcount for the general category of “Asian,” from 6.0% to 6.2%. Their correction did not extend to people who identified themselves as “Asian … Continue reading
– 20  of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 6% of the total population.

– “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for Overcount[5]The Census Bureau reported multiple undercounts for Native Americans. These were “On Reservation” (5.64%), and “Off Reservation” (3.06%). Yet, the balance of the undercount … Continue reading
– 2.3 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 0.7% of the total population.

– “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for Overcount[6]The Census Bureau reported a 1.28% undercount for the general category of “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander.” Their correction did not extend to people who identified … Continue reading
– 622k of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 0.2% of the total population.

– “Some Other Race alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for Overcount[7]The Census Bureau reported a 4.34% undercount for the general category of “Some Other Race.” Their correction did not extend to people who identified themselves as “Some Other Race … Continue reading
– 1.7 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 0.5% of the total population.

– “Two or More Races, not Hispanic or Latino”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for Overcount
– 13.6 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 4.1% of the total population.

Definitions of Race & Ethnicity, 2020 Census[8]From “Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census” “Ethnicity: Ethnicity is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as either ‘Hispanic or Latino’ … Continue reading


References:

Bahrampour, T. (2022, March 10). 2020 Census undercounted Latinos, Blacks, and Native Americans, bureau estimates show. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2022/03/10/2020-census-undercount-report/

FastStats (2022). Homepage. Retrieved January 29, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/default.htm

Flores, A. (2020, July 29). How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/18/how-the-u-s-hispanic-population-is-changing/

Frey, W. H. (2021, July 12). What the 2020 census will reveal about America: Stagnating growth, an aging population, and youthful diversity. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/research/what-the-2020-census-will-reveal-about-america-stagnating-growth-an-aging-population-and-youthful-diversity/

Noe-Bustamante, L. (2020, May 31). Key facts about U.S. Hispanics and their diverse heritage. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/09/16/key-facts-about-u-s-hispanics/
Noe-Bustamante, L., Lopez, M. H., & Krogstad, J. M. (2020, July 10). U.S. Hispanic population surpassed 60 million in 2019, but growth has slowed. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/07/07/u-s-hispanic-population-surpassed-60-million-in-2019-but-growth-has-slowed/

Office of Minority Health (2019). American Indian/Alaskan Native Profile. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlid=62

Sanchez, G. R. (2022, March 26). What are the consequences of the Latino undercount in the 2020 U.S. Census? Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2022/03/24/what-are-the-consequences-of-the-latino-undercount-in-the-2020-u-s-census/

US Census Bureau (2021, October 8). 2020 Census Statistics Highlight Local Population Changes and Nation’s Racial and Ethnic Diversity. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2021/population-changes-nations-diversity.html

US Census Bureau (2021a, October 8). Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2019. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2020/demo/p60-271.html

U.S. Census Bureau (2021b, October 15). 2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2021/08/improved-race-ethnicity-measures-reveal-united-states-population-much-more-multiracial.html

US Census Bureau (2021c, October 19). Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/race-and-ethnicity-in-the-united-state-2010-and-2020-census.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2022a, April 12). Detailed Coverage Estimates for the 2020 Census Released Today. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/03/who-was-undercounted-overcounted-in-2020-census.html

U.S. Census Bureau (2022b). Population Clock. https://www.census.gov/popclock/

Notes

Notes
1This overcount was specific to the category of “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” the 2020 overcount was twice what it was in the 2010 census (.83%). Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. Bahrampour, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.
2This is a scandalous undercount; the most severe of the 2020 census. The consequences have yet to be analyzed. In the 2010 census, there was a 1.54% undercount. Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. Bahrampour, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.
3The Census Bureau reported a 3.30% undercount for the general category of “Black or African American,” from 12.4% to 12.6%. Their correction did not extend to people who identified themselves as “Black or African American alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. Bahrampour, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.
4The Census Bureau reported a 2.62% overcount for the general category of “Asian,” from 6.0% to 6.2%. Their correction did not extend to people who identified themselves as “Asian alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. Bahrampour, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.
5The Census Bureau reported multiple undercounts for Native Americans. These were “On Reservation” (5.64%), and “Off Reservation” (3.06%). Yet, the balance of the undercount was placed at 0.86%. Their correction did not extend to people who identified themselves as “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. Bahrampour, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.
6The Census Bureau reported a 1.28% undercount for the general category of “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander.” Their correction did not extend to people who identified themselves as “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. Bahrampour, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.
7The Census Bureau reported a 4.34% undercount for the general category of “Some Other Race.” Their correction did not extend to people who identified themselves as “Some Other Race alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. Bahrampour, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.
8From “Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census”
“Ethnicity: Ethnicity is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as either ‘Hispanic or Latino’ or ‘Not Hispanic or Latino.’ The Office of Management and Budget defines ‘Hispanic or Latino’ as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. People who identify as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race”
“Race alone: People who respond to the question on race by indicating only one race category are referred to as the race alone population, or the group who reported only one race. For example, respondents who report a single detailed Asian group, such as “Asian Indian” or “Korean,” are included in the Asian alone population. Respondents who report more than one detailed Asian group, such as “Asian Indian” and “Korean” are also included in the Asian alone population. This is because the detailed groups in the example combination are part of the larger Asian race category. The Asian alone population can be viewed as the minimum number of people reporting Asian.
“Race in combination: People who respond to the question on race by indicating more than one race category are referred to as the race in combination population, the Multiracial population, or the Two or More Races population. There are 57 possible Multiracial combinations involving the five Office of Management and Budget race categories and the Some Other Race category. For example, a respondent who identified as “Asian” and “White” was counted in the Asian in combination category as well as in the White in combination category.
“Race alone or in combination: The maximum number of people reporting a particular race is reflected in the race alone or in combination concept. This represents the number of times responses were part of one of the six major race categories, either alone or in combination with the other five race categories. For example, a respondent who identified as “Asian” and “White” was counted in the Asian race alone or in combination category as well as in the White race alone or in combination category. Therefore, the sum of all race alone or in combination categories equals the number of races reported (i.e., responses), which exceeds the total population”
(US Census Bureau 2021, October 14).
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