Race & Ethnicity in the U.S., 2020 Census (including the over/undercounts!)

Contents



To cite any part of this project:

Simón Salazar, H. L. (2022). Race & Ethnicity in the U.S., 2020 Census. Harry L. Simón Salazar, Ph.D. https://harrysimonsalazar.net/race-ethnicity-in-the-u-s-2020-census-including-the-undercounts/


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U.S. Census Bureau Categorical Definitions for Race & Ethnicity, National Numbers

The following excerpt is from the U.S. Census Bureau document “Measuring Racial and Ethnic Diversity for the 2020 Census,” published online on August 04, 2021 (US Census Bureau, 2022c).

Categorizing Race and EthnicityFirst, it’s important to know how we collect and tabulate data on race and ethnicity in the 2020 Census. Like other statistical agencies, we follow standards on race and ethnicity set by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in 1997. These standards guide how the federal government collects and presents data on these topics. Per these standards:

  • The 2020 Census collected data on Hispanic origin and race in two separate questions.
  • We tabulated the responses based on standard categories.

For race, the OMB standards identify five minimum categories:

  • White
  • Black or African American
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

We use a sixth category, Some Other Race, for people who do not identify with any of the OMB race categories.

We tabulate statistics on people who report only one race in one of these six “race alone” categories, and we include people who report multiple races in the “Multiracial” population, also referred to as the “Two or More Races” population.

For ethnicity, the OMB standards classify individuals in one of two categories: “Hispanic or Latino” or “Not Hispanic or Latino.” We use the term “Hispanic or Latino” interchangeably with the term “Hispanic,” and also refer to this concept as “ethnicity.”

The OMB standards also emphasize that people of Hispanic origin may be of any race. In data tables, we often cross-tabulate the race and Hispanic origin categories to display Hispanic as a single category and the non-Hispanic race groups as categories summing up to the total population.

These diversity calculations require the use of mutually exclusive racial and ethnic (nonoverlapping) categories. For our analyses, we calculate the Hispanic or Latino population of any race as a category; each of the race alone, non-Hispanic groups as individual categories; and the Multiracial non-Hispanic group as a distinct category.

The following groups are used in the diversity calculations:

  • Hispanic
  • White alone, non-Hispanic
  • Black or African American alone, non-Hispanic
  • American Indian and Alaska Native alone, non-Hispanic
  • Asian alone, non-Hispanic
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, non-Hispanic
  • Some Other Race alone, non-Hispanic
  • Multiracial, non-Hispanic

The estimated total U.S. population in April 2020 was 331,449,281. Factoring in the total population undercount, the U.S. population in April 2020 was actually 332,244,759. In 2020:

  • Median Household Income: $64,994.
  • Bachelor’s Degree Or Higher: 32.9%.
  • Employment Rate: 59.6%
  • Without Health Care Coverage: 8.7%

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“White alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

The following racial/ethnic definition is originally from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) document Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, published on October 30, 1997 (OMB, 1997). It also draws from the U.S. Census Bureau “QuickFacts” site and the U.S. Census Bureau 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021):

White alone: “A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as ‘White’ or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian.”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for the 1.64% Net Overcount[1]Amounts to an overcount of approximately 3,143,841 people. This overcount was specific to the category of “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino,” the primary category used in this … Continue reading)
– 191,697,647  of 332 million people in the U.S.– 188,553,806  of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 57.8% of the total population.56.8% of the total population.
  
Other racial categorizations within the total U.S. population:
  • White alone:    204,227,273.
  • White in combination:    31,134,234.
  • White alone or in combination:    235,411,507.
 
  • Female:    50.7%
  • Male:    49.3% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

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“Hispanic or Latino”

The following racial/ethnic definition is originally from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) document Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, published on October 30, 1997 (OMB, 1997). It also draws from the U.S. Census Bureau “QuickFacts” site and the U.S. Census Bureau 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021):

Hispanic or Latino: “A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term, ‘Spanish origin,’ can be used in addition to ‘Hispanic or Latino.'”

“The terms ‘Hispanic,’ ‘Latino,’ and ‘Spanish’ are used interchangeably. Some respondents identify with all three terms, while others may identify with only one of these three specific terms. People who identify with the terms ‘Hispanic,’ ‘Latino,’ or ‘Spanish’ are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish categories listed on the questionnaire (‘Mexican,’ ‘Puerto Rican,’ or ‘Cuban’) as well as those who indicate that they are ‘another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin.’ People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are ‘another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin’ are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, or another Spanish culture or origin. Up to six write-in responses to the ‘another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin’ category are coded. Knowing that some respondents may self-identify by reporting multiple Hispanic ethnicities, such as ‘Cuban’ AND ‘Salvadoran,’ 2020 Census entries with multiple detailed Hispanic responses will be collected for research purposes. However, following the OMB standards, only a single Hispanic response will be tabulated, as was done for the 2010 Census. Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for the Net 5% Undercount[2]Amounts to an undercount of approximately 3,097,794 people. The Census Bureau reported a 4.99% undercount for the general category of “Hispanic or Latino.” The original count was … Continue reading
– 62,080,044  of 332 million people in the U.S.– 65,177,838  of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 18.7% of the total population.– 19.6% of the total population.
  
“Hispanic or Latino” is the only ethnicity/non-racial top-line category established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and used by the U.S. Census Bureau. In the words of the OMB, “For ethnicity, the OMB standards classify individuals in one of two categories: ‘Hispanic or Latino’ or ‘Not Hispanic or Latino.’ We use the term ‘Hispanic or Latino’ interchangeably with the term ‘Hispanic’ and also refer to this concept as ‘ethnicity.’ The OMB standards also emphasize that people of Hispanic origin may be of any race.”
  • Female:    49.6%
  • Male:    50.4% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

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“Black or African American alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

The following racial/ethnic definition is originally from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) document Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, published on October 30, 1997 (OMB, 1997). It also draws from the U.S. Census Bureau “QuickFacts” site and the U.S. Census Bureau 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021):

Black or African American alone: “A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as ‘Black or African American’ or report responses such as African American, Jamaican, Haitian, Nigerian, Ethiopian, or Somali. The category also includes groups such as Ghanaian, South African, Barbadian, Kenyan, Liberian, Bahamian, etc.”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for the “Alone or in Combination” Category Net 3.3% Undercount[3]Amounts to an undercount of approximately 1,272,460 people. The Census Bureau reported a 3.30% undercount for the general category of “Black or African American alone or in combination.” … Continue reading
– 39,940,338  of 332 million people in the U.S.– 41,212,798 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 12.1% of the total population.– 12.4% of the total population.
 
Other racial categorizations within the total U.S. population:
  • Black or African American alone:    41,104,200
  • Black or African American in combination:    5,832,533
  • Black or African American alone or in combination:    46,936,733
 
  • Female:    52.2%
  • Male:   47.8% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

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“Asian alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

The following racial/ethnic definition is originally from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) document Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, published on October 30, 1997 (OMB, 1997). It also draws from the U.S. Census Bureau “QuickFacts” site and the U.S. Census Bureau 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021):

Asian alone: “A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for the “Alone or in Combination” Category Net 2.6% Overcount[4]Amounts to an overcount of approximately 523,654 people. The Census Bureau reported a 2.62% overcount for the general category of “Asian alone or in combination.” A 2.62% overcount … Continue reading
– 19,618,719  of 332 million people in the U.S.– 19,095,065 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 6.0% of the total population.– 5.7% of the total population.
 
Other racial categorizations within the total U.S. population:
  • Asian alone:    19,886,049
  • Asian in combination:    4,114,949
  • Asian alone or in combination:    24,000,998
 
  • Female:    52.6%
  • Male:   47.4% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

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“American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

The following racial/ethnic definition is originally from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) document Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, published on October 30, 1997 (OMB, 1997). It also draws from the U.S. Census Bureau “QuickFacts” site and the U.S. Census Bureau 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021):

American Indian & Alaskan Native alone: “A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for the “Alone or in Combination” Category & “On/Off Reservation” Status 0.9% Net Undercount[5]Amounts to an undercount of approximately 19,861 people. The Census Bureau reported a 5.64% undercount for the general category of “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone or in … Continue reading
– 2,251,699 of 332 million people in the U.S.– 2,271,560 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 0.7% of the total population.– 0.7% of the total population.
 
Other racial categorizations within the total U.S. population:
  • American Indian & Alaskan Native alone:    3,727,135
  • American Indian & Alaskan Native in combination:    5,938,923
  • American Indian & Alaskan Native alone or in combination:    9,666,058
 
  • Female:    50.3%
  • Male:   49.7.% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

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“Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

The following racial/ethnic definition is originally from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) document Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, published on October 30, 1997 (OMB, 1997). It also draws from the U.S. Census Bureau “QuickFacts” site and the U.S. Census Bureau 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021):

Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone: “A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for the “Alone or in Combination” Category Net 1.3% Overcount[6]Amounts to an overcount of approximately xxx people. The Census Bureau reported a 1.28% overcount for the general category of “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone or in … Continue reading
– 622,018 of 332 million people in the U.S.– 613,933 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 0.2% of the total population.– 0.2% of the total population.
 
Other racial categorizations within the total U.S. population:
  • Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone:    689,966
  • Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander in combination:    896,497
  • Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone or in combination:    1,586,463
 
  • Female:    51.3%
  • Male:   48.7% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

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“Some Other Race alone, not Hispanic or Latino”

The following racial/ethnic definition is originally from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) document Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, published on October 30, 1997 (OMB, 1997). It also draws from the U.S. Census Bureau “QuickFacts” site and the U.S. Census Bureau 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021):

Some Other Race alone: “Includes all other responses not included in the ‘White,’ ‘Black or African American,’ ‘American Indian or Alaska Native,’ ‘Asian,’ and ‘Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander’ race categories described above. Respondents reporting entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, or a Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or Spanish) in response to the race question are included in this category.”

Original 2020 DataAdjusted for the “Alone or in Combination” Category Net 4.3% Undercount[7]Amounts to an undercount of approximately 75,283 people. The Census Bureau reported a 4.34% undercount for the general category of “Some Other Race alone or in combination.” A 4.34% … Continue reading
– 1,689,833 of 332 million people in the U.S.– 1,765,116 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 0.5% of the total population.– 0.5% of the total population.
 
Other racial categorizations within the total U.S. population:
  • Some Other Race alone:    27,915,715
  • Some Other Race in combination:    21,986,821
  • Some Other Race alone or in combination:    49,902,536
 
  • Female:    48.9%
  • Male:   51.1% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

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“Two or More Races, not Hispanic or Latino”

The following racial/ethnic definition is originally from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) document Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, published on October 30, 1997 (OMB, 1997). It also draws from the U.S. Census Bureau “QuickFacts” site and the U.S. Census Bureau 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (U.S. Census Bureau, 2021):

Two or More Races: “For data product purposes, ‘Two or More Races’ refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:

          1. White
          2. Black or African American
          3. American Indian or Alaska Native
          4. Asian
          5. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
          6. Some Other Race

There are 57 possible combinations (see Figure B-1) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of “White” and “Asian” was tallied as Two or More Races, while a response of “Japanese” and “Chinese” was not because “Japanese” and “Chinese” are both Asian responses.

Figure B-1. Two or More Races (57 Possible Specified Combinations)*

          1. White; Black or African American
          2. White; American Indian and Alaska Native
          3. White; Asian
          4. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
          5. White; Some Other Race
          6. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
          7. Black or African American; Asian
          8. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
          9. Black or African American; Some Other Race
          10. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
          11. * Only the first 10 combinations are listed here. For the complete list of 57 combinations, click here.

In other presentations on race, data are shown for the total number of people who reported one of the six categories alone or in combination with one or more other race categories. For example, the category “Asian alone or in combination with one or more other races” includes people who reported Asian alone and people who reported Asian in combination with one or more of the other race groups (i.e., White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race). This number, therefore, represents the maximum number of people who reported as Asian in the question on race. When this data presentation is used, the individual race categories will add to more than the total population because people may be included in more than one category.”

Original 2020 DataNo Over/Undercount Reported
– 13,548,983 of 332 million people in the U.S.
– 4.1% of the total population.
 
Other racial categorizations within the total U.S. population:
  • Two or More Races alone:    33,848,943
 
  • Female:    50.1%
  • Male:   49.9% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

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Definitions of Race & Ethnicity, 2020 Census[8]From “Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census” “Ethnicity: Ethnicity is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as either ‘Hispanic or Latino’ … Continue reading


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References:

American Indian/Alaska Native – The Office of Minority Health. (2019). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlid=62

Bahrampour, T. (2022, March 10). 2020 Census undercounted Latinos, Blacks, and Native Americans, bureau estimates show. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2022/03/10/2020-census-undercount-report/

Cohn, D., & Passel, J. S. (2022, June 8). Key facts about the quality of the 2020 census. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/06/08/key-facts-about-the-quality-of-the-2020-census/

FastStats (2022). Homepage. Retrieved January 29, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/default.htm

Flores, A. (2020, July 29). How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/18/how-the-u-s-hispanic-population-is-changing/

Frey, W. H. (2021, July 12). What the 2020 census will reveal about America: Stagnating growth, an aging population, and youthful diversity. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/research/what-the-2020-census-will-reveal-about-america-stagnating-growth-an-aging-population-and-youthful-diversity/

Noe-Bustamante, L. (2020, May 31). Key facts about U.S. Hispanics and their diverse heritage. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/09/16/key-facts-about-u-s-hispanics/
Noe-Bustamante, L., Lopez, M. H., & Krogstad, J. M. (2020, July 10). U.S. Hispanic population surpassed 60 million in 2019, but growth has slowed. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/07/07/u-s-hispanic-population-surpassed-60-million-in-2019-but-growth-has-slowed/

Office of Minority Health (2019). American Indian/Alaskan Native Profile. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlid=62

Sanchez, G. R. (2022, March 26). What are the consequences of the Latino undercount in the 2020 U.S. Census? Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2022/03/24/what-are-the-consequences-of-the-latino-undercount-in-the-2020-u-s-census/

U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Explore Census Data. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/

U.S. Census Bureau. (2021, June). 2020 Census State Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary File (SFSRD/20-01). U.S. Department of Commerce.

U.S. Census Bureau (2021, July 1). QuickFacts. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045221

US Census Bureau (2021, October 8). 2020 Census Statistics Highlight Local Population Changes and Nation’s Racial and Ethnic Diversity. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2021/population-changes-nations-diversity.html

US Census Bureau (2021, October 8). Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2019. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2020/demo/p60-271.html

U.S. Census Bureau (2021, October 15). 2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2021/08/improved-race-ethnicity-measures-reveal-united-states-population-much-more-multiracial.html

US Census Bureau (2021, October 19). Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/race-and-ethnicity-in-the-united-state-2010-and-2020-census.html

US Census Bureau. (2022, March 1). About the Topic of Race. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/topics/population/race/about.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2022, April 12). Detailed Coverage Estimates for the 2020 Census Released Today. Census.Gov. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/03/who-was-undercounted-overcounted-in-2020-census.html

U.S. Census Bureau (2022). Population Clock. https://www.census.gov/popclock/

US Census Bureau. (2022, June 9). Measuring Racial and Ethnic Diversity for the 2020 Census. The United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/blogs/random-samplings/2021/08/measuring-racial-ethnic-diversity-2020-census.html

U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). (1997, October). Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity (No. 58782). United States Government Publishing Office (GPO). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1997-10-30/pdf/97-28653.pdf


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Notes

Notes
1Amounts to an overcount of approximately 3,143,841 people. This overcount was specific to the category of “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino,” the primary category used in this analysis. The U.S. Census Bureau March 10, 2022, announcement of these over/undercounts provided little data, limited to percentages for “alone or in combination” categories. The only exceptions were the two overcount percentages provided for “White alone or in combination” (.66%) and “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino” (1.64%).

The overcount for the category of “White alone or in combination” was 0.66%, or an estimated overcount of 1,553,716 people. The overcount for the category of “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino” was 1.64%, or an estimated overcount of 3,143,841 people.

The relative difference in percentage between the original census numbers for “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino” and “White alone or in combination” is 19%. In other words, 19% of 235,411,507 (White alone or in combination) is 191,697,647 (White alone, not Hispanic or Latino).

The relative difference in percentage between the census numbers adjusted for overcounts for “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino” and “White alone or in combination” is also 19%. In other words, 19% of 233,857,791 (White alone or in combination adjusted for 0.66% overcount) is 191,697,647 (White alone, not Hispanic or Latino adjusted for 1.64% overcount). For the purposes of this analysis, I used these relative percentages to estimate the “not Hispanic or Latino” over/undercounts for the remaining categories.

This 2020 overcount is twice what it was in the 2010 census (.83%). The estimated total U.S. population in April 2020 was 331,449,281. Factoring in the total population undercount, the U.S. population in April 2020 was actually 332,244,759. Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. For more information, see Bahrampour, 2022; Cohn & Passel, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.

2Amounts to an undercount of approximately 3,097,794 people. The Census Bureau reported a 4.99% undercount for the general category of “Hispanic or Latino.” The original count was 62,080,044, and the adjusted count is 65,177,838 people who identify as “Hispanic or Latino.”

This is a substantial undercount; the most severe of the 2020 census. It represents the exclusion of at least 1 of every 20 U.S. “Hispanics.” The true consequences of this undercount have yet to be reported, but Sanchez 2022 provides a preliminary analysis. In the 2010 census, there was a 1.54% undercount.

The estimated total U.S. population in April 2020 was 331,449,281. Factoring in the total population undercount, the U.S. population in April 2020 was actually 332,244,759. Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. For more information, see Bahrampour, 2022; Cohn & Passel, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.

3Amounts to an undercount of approximately 1,272,460 people. The Census Bureau reported a 3.30% undercount for the general category of “Black or African American alone or in combination.”

A 3.3% undercount represents an estimated 1,548,912 people; that is 48,485,645 people who identify as “Black or African American alone or in combination.”

Their correction did not differentiate people who identified themselves as “Black or African American alone, not Hispanic or Latino,” the primary category used in this analysis. To correct for this gap in the data, I calculate the relative percentage between the original count for “Black or African American alone or in combination” (46,936,733) and the original “Black or African American alone, not Hispanic or Latino” (39,940,338). 85.1% of “Black or African American” people do not identify as “Hispanic or Latino.”

The undercount adjusted “Black or African American alone or in combination” population is 48,485,645, and 85% of this population identify as “Black or African American alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” That is estimated to be 41,212,798 people; an undercount of 1,272,460 people.

The estimated total U.S. population in April 2020 was 331,449,281. Factoring in the total population undercount, the U.S. population in April 2020 was actually 332,244,759. Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. For more information, see Bahrampour, 2022; Cohn & Passel, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.

4Amounts to an overcount of approximately 523,654 people. The Census Bureau reported a 2.62% overcount for the general category of “Asian alone or in combination.”

A 2.62% overcount represents an estimated 628,826 people; that is 23,372,172 people who identify as “Asian alone or in combination.”

Their correction did not differentiate people who identified themselves as “Asian alone, not Hispanic or Latino,” the primary category used in this analysis. To correct for this gap in the data, I calculate the relative percentage between the original count for “Asian alone or in combination” (24,000,998) and the original “Asian alone, not Hispanic or Latino” (19,618,719). 81.7% of “Asian” people do not identify as “Hispanic or Latino.”

The overcount adjusted “Asian alone or in combination” population is 23,372,172, and 81.7% of this population identify as “Asian alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” That is estimated to be 19,095,065 people; an overcount of 523,654 people.

The estimated total U.S. population in April 2020 was 331,449,281. Factoring in the total population undercount, the U.S. population in April 2020 was actually 332,244,759. Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. For more information, see Bahrampour, 2022; Cohn & Passel, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.

5Amounts to an undercount of approximately 19,861 people. The Census Bureau reported a 5.64% undercount for the general category of “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone or in combination, living on reservations.”  Furthermore, they reported a 3.06% overcount for “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone or in combination, living off reservations.” The Census Bureau noted the balance of these percentages as a 0.86% undercount for “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone or in combination.”

A 0.86% undercount represents an estimated 83,128 people; that is 9,749,186 people who identify as “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone or in combination.”

Their correction did not differentiate people who identified themselves as “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino,” the primary category used in this analysis. To correct for this gap in the data, I calculate the relative percentage between the original count for “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone or in combination” (9,666,058) and the original “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino” (2,251,699). 23.3% of “American Indian & Alaskan Native” people do not identify as “Hispanic or Latino.”

The undercount adjusted “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone or in combination” population is 9,749,186, and 23.3% of this population identify as “American Indian & Alaskan Native alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” That is estimated to be 2,271,560 people; an undercount of 19,861 people.

The estimated total U.S. population in April 2020 was 331,449,281. Factoring in the total population undercount, the U.S. population in April 2020 was actually 332,244,759. Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. For more information, see Bahrampour, 2022; Cohn & Passel, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.

6Amounts to an overcount of approximately xxx people. The Census Bureau reported a 1.28% overcount for the general category of “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone or in combination.”

A 1.28% overcount represents an estimated 20,307 people; that is 1,566,156 people who identify as “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone or in combination.”

Their correction did not differentiate people who identified themselves as “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone, not Hispanic or Latino,” the primary category used in this analysis. To correct for this gap in the data, I calculate the relative percentage between the original count for “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone or in combination” (1,586,463) and the original “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone, not Hispanic or Latino” (622,018). 39.2% of “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander” people do not identify as “Hispanic or Latino.”

The overcount adjusted “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone or in combination” population is 1,566,156, and 39.2% of this population identify as “Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” That is estimated to be 613,933 people; an overcount of 8,085 people.

The estimated total U.S. population in April 2020 was 331,449,281. Factoring in the total population undercount, the U.S. population in April 2020 was actually 332,244,759. Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. For more information, see Bahrampour, 2022; Cohn & Passel, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.

7Amounts to an undercount of approximately 75,283 people. The Census Bureau reported a 4.34% undercount for the general category of “Some Other Race alone or in combination.”

A 4.34% undercount represents an estimated 2,165,770 people; that is 52,068,306 people who identify as “Some Other Race alone or in combination.”

Their correction did not differentiate people who identified themselves as “Some Other Race alone, not Hispanic or Latino,” the primary category used in this analysis. To correct for this gap in the data, I calculate the relative percentage between the original count for “Some Other Race alone or in combination” (49,902,536) and the original “Some Other Race alone, not Hispanic or Latino” (1,689,833). 3.39% of “Some Other Race” people do not identify as “Hispanic or Latino.”

The undercount adjusted “Some Other Race alone or in combination” population is 52,068,306, and 3.39% of this population identify as “Some Other Race alone, not Hispanic or Latino.” That is estimated to be 1,765,116 people; an undercount of 75,283 people.

The estimated total U.S. population in April 2020 was 331,449,281. Factoring in the total population undercount, the U.S. population in April 2020 was actually 332,244,759. Over/undercounts are only noted when Census Bureau “Percent Net Coverage Error” is greater than 1%. For more information, see Bahrampour, 2022; Cohn & Passel, 2022; U.S. Census Bureau, 2022.

8From “Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census”
“Ethnicity: Ethnicity is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as either ‘Hispanic or Latino’ or ‘Not Hispanic or Latino.’ The Office of Management and Budget defines ‘Hispanic or Latino’ as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. People who identify as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race”
“Race alone: People who respond to the question on race by indicating only one race category are referred to as the race alone population, or the group who reported only one race. For example, respondents who report a single detailed Asian group, such as “Asian Indian” or “Korean,” are included in the Asian alone population. Respondents who report more than one detailed Asian group, such as “Asian Indian” and “Korean” are also included in the Asian alone population. This is because the detailed groups in the example combination are part of the larger Asian race category. The Asian alone population can be viewed as the minimum number of people reporting Asian.
“Race in combination: People who respond to the question on race by indicating more than one race category are referred to as the race in combination population, the Multiracial population, or the Two or More Races population. There are 57 possible Multiracial combinations involving the five Office of Management and Budget race categories and the Some Other Race category. For example, a respondent who identified as “Asian” and “White” was counted in the Asian in combination category as well as in the White in combination category.
“Race alone or in combination: The maximum number of people reporting a particular race is reflected in the race alone or in combination concept. This represents the number of times responses were part of one of the six major race categories, either alone or in combination with the other five race categories. For example, a respondent who identified as “Asian” and “White” was counted in the Asian race alone or in combination category as well as in the White race alone or in combination category. Therefore, the sum of all race alone or in combination categories equals the number of races reported (i.e., responses), which exceeds the total population”
(US Census Bureau 2021, October 14).
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